Greenhouse crop have a variety of conditions conducive to growth and production, but they are also susceptible to serious diseases such as root rot, leaf wilt, fruit rot and pests, among others. For this reason, it is important to know which are the five most dangerous and even contagious diseases that can threaten greenhouse cultivation. These are:
1. Fusarium: It is a fungus that can cause serious problems in the plant by developing a diseased root and tissue death. This disease is transmitted to greenhouses through infested seeds.
2. Mosaic: This disease is caused by a virus and is transmitted between plants by insects or by contact with infected plants. Symptoms include brown spots on the leaves of the plant, as well as chlorotic furrows between the points where the leaf folds. This disease can destroy entire crops.
3. Cryptogamia: This disease, also known as heat stress, occurs when high temperatures are reached in the greenhouse during the summer, causing a drastic reduction in yield, including wilting of leaves and decreased production levels.
4. Fruit rot: This is one of the most common greenhouse diseases and occurs when fruits begin to rot and become infected with pathogenic microorganisms. This disease is spread by the propagation of microorganisms between different fruits.
5. Black spot: This disease is caused by a fungus and spreads through infected leaves and can be found on fruit plants such as grapes, melons and strawberries. This disease produces black spots on leaves, fruit and stems.
Proper knowledge about these diseases and their mode of spread is essential to prevent them and make a greenhouse safe.
Best preventive measures against contagion in greenhouse crops
Growing vegetables in greenhouses can be an excellent solution for farmers who need to produce food in a hostile climatic context. The risk of infection and damage to plants is a reality to consider when using greenhouses. Therefore, it is important for people to know the best preventive measures against greenhouse crop contagion.
One of the main and best preventive measures against greenhouse crop infestation is humidity control. Excessive humidity in the greenhouse can lead to the spread of fungal diseases such as root rot, basal rot and scald. To reduce humidity, the greenhouse walls should be well sealed and adequately air-conditioned. In addition, it is important that the greenhouse floor is covered with a good layer of mulch, such as sawdust, dry leaves, compressed material or any other biodegradable material that retains moisture.
Another important preventive measure is plant care and maintenance. This includes regular weeding to eliminate weeds and cleaning of leaves and stems to avoid pest-borne diseases. Pest and disease control can be easily accomplished with the use of pesticides, but it is important to strictly follow the manufacturer’s instructions for both chemical and organic products. In addition, it is important to clean tools and plant boxes after each use to reduce the risk of spreading diseases through common tools.
Finally, a very important preventive measure to avoid the spread of diseases in greenhouses is crop rotation. It means that once a plant of a given crop has been harvested, the soil should be renewed and plants should be rotated for different crops. This is done to prevent diseases, insects, and pests from spreading from the previous crop plant.
How to keep crops healthy and disease free
Greenhouse care and maintenance is one of the best preventive measures against the spread of crop diseases. Controlling humidity, maintaining hygiene, using the right products to control them, and crop rotation are some of the problematic preventive measures that will help keep crops healthy and disease-free.
Safety measures are essential to ensure the safety of greenhouses. This is due to the growing concern around crop contamination. Greenhouses are designed to promote the growth of plant products such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and any other plants, but this also leads to increased exposure to potential contaminants.
One of the most common risks for greenhouse crop contamination is phytoplankton, which are microscopic organisms that can contaminate greenhouses through partially contaminated air. These particles can be released from jet engine fuels, glyphosate or natural or aerosolized pesticides released into the environment. These particles can affect plant growth by blocking the sunlight needed for proper plant growth. Greenhouses can be contaminated through wastewater as well. The presence of bacteria, again, can have a difficult-to-reverse effect on greenhouse crops. This is because nutrients and pollutants present in the water can also block crop development by preventing crops from absorbing sufficient sunlight.
For this reason, it is important to take a variety of preventive measures. Common practices used to prevent pollution in greenhouses include ensuring the development of air quality standards, installation of filtration systems to filter air and water, as well as constant monitoring of water quality. The use of composting systems and the use of synthetic fertilizers are also strongly recommended. In addition to avoiding resorting to extreme measures, it is important to prevent contamination by ensuring adequate air circulation in the greenhouse.